Computer hardware refers to all of the physical components of a computer, whether it's analog or digital. Hardware refers to the actual components of a computer as opposed to software, which is made up of written, machine-readable instructions or programs that tell physical components what to do and when to do it.

Hardware and software are mutually beneficial. Only when both hardware and software work together properly can a computer device function effectively and create valuable results.

Computer hardware is divided into two types: internal and exterior components. Internal hardware components are those that are required for the computer's proper operation, whereas external hardware components are those that are added to the computer to add or expand functionality.

Computer Hardware – Computer Fundamentals and Application

In this “Computer Hardware – Computer Fundamentals and Application” you will learn about the following topics:

  1. Introduction to Computer Hardware
  2. Internal Computer Hardware Components
  3. External Hardware Components
  4. Power Supply
  5. Types of Power Supply
  6. AT (Advanced Technology), ATX (Advanced Technology Extended)
  7. Power Rating
  8. Concept of Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS)
  9. Types of SMPS
  10. AT SMPS, ATX SMPS, BTX SMPS
  11. Concept of Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)
  12. Types of Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)
  13. Online UPS, Offline UPS
  14. Motherboard
  15. Components of Motherboard
  16. PS/2 Socket, CPU Socket, DDR Memory Slot, Power Connector, North Bridge, South Bridge, ROM, CMOS Battery Slot, IDE Connector, SATA Connector, PCI Slot, AGP Slot, Audio Port, LAN Port, Parallel Port, Serial Port
  17. History of Motherboards
  18. Types of Motherboards
  19. XT (Extended Technology), AT (Advanced Technology), Baby AT (Advanced Technology), ATX (Advanced Technology Extended)
  20. System Chipset
  21. System Bus
  22. Types of System Buses
  23. Data Bus, Address Bus, Control Bus
  24. System BIOS
  25. Common Tasks That the BIOS Perform
  26. Processor
  27. Microprocessor Has Three Components
  28. Control Unit (CU), Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Register
  29. Types of Processors
  30. Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC), Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC), Multi-Core Processors
  31. Storage Devices
  32. Types of Temporary Storage Devices
  33. Types of Permanent Storage Devices



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BCA 1st Semester Computer Fundamentals and Application Notes Pdf: