Unit II: Motivation - Organization Management - BCA Notes (Pokhara University)

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Sunday, July 21, 2019

Unit II: Motivation - Organization Management

Concept Of Motivation:

The term motivation is derived from the word ‘motive”. The word ‘motive’ as a noun means an objective, as a verb, this word means moving into action. Therefore, motives are forces which induce people to act in a way, so as to ensure the fulfilment of a particular human need at a time. Behind every human action, there is a motive. Therefore, management must provide motives to people to make them work for the organization.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Motivation may be defined as a planned managerial process, which stimulates people to work to the best of their capabilities, by providing them with motives, which are based on their unfulfilled needs.

According to William G. Scott, “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goods.”

According to Flippo, “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward.”

According to Dale S Beach, “Motivation can be defined as a willingness to work to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward.”

Motivation is, in fact, pressing the right button to get the desired human behaviour. Motivation is no doubt an essential ingredient of any Organization. It is the psychological technique which really executes the plans and policies through the efforts of others.

Features Of Motivation:

Motivation is a psychological and human aspect. It influences the behaviour of subordinates in accordance with organizational requirements. It is a continuous process and concentrates on organizational goals. 
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Main Features Of Motivation:

1. Psychological Process:

Motivation is a psychological process. It is the process to achieve the desired result by stimulating and influencing the behaviour of subordinates. A manager must be careful to understand the needs, motives and desires of every worker in the organization. Subordinates differ in their approach and even two individuals cannot be motivated with the same techniques.

2. Continuous Process:

Motivation is a continuous process. A satisfied person of today may not be satisfied tomorrow. When one need is satisfied, another need emerges. Therefore, motivation is a never-ending process until the completion of objectives. It is the responsibility of the management to develop new techniques, systems and methods to fulfil the changing needs of workers.

3. Complex And Unpredictable:

Motivation is a complex and unpredictable task. Human wants are unlimited and they are changeable according to time and situation. A satisfied person of the present may not be satisfied in the future. In a similar manner, even two persons may not be motivated with similar behaviour and facilities. Therefore, a manager must be more conscious to motivate subordinates to achieve objectives.

4. Pervasive Function:

Motivation is pervasive of all levels of management. Every manager from top to the bottom level in the management hierarchy is responsible for motivation. A manager is primarily responsible for motivating his subordinates and secondly other subordinates in the management hierarchy. This is essential to develop the concept of group work and team spirit among all members of the organization.

5. Influences The Behavior:

One of the important parts of motivation is to influence the behaviour of subordinates. Management has to influence the behaviour of workers and inspire them to concentrate more on their works. Therefore, a manager has to play the role of a leader to influence the behaviour of subordinates to achieve common goals.

6. Concentrated On Whole Individuals:

Individuals are motivated to fulfil their unlimited needs. A person cannot be partly motivated as he is a self-contained and inseparable unit. For instance, whenever an individual wish to wear a pair of shoes, only the feet are not motivated but the whole body of the individual is motivated to get the shoes. Therefore, motivation is concentrated on individuals and their attitude to improve their working efficiency.

7. Positive or Negative:

Motivation may be positive or negative. A positive motivation promises incentives and rewards to workers. Incentives involve both financial and non-financial. Negative motivation is based on punishment for poor performance like minimizing wage, demotion, job termination, etc. On the basis of requirements, the manager can use both positive and negative for better performance.

Need/Importance Of Motivation:

Motivation is one of the important parts of managerial functions. A manager becomes unsuccessful if he/she fails to motivate his/her subordinates. There is a close relationship between motivation and performance.  
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

The Following Are The Importance Of Motivation:

1. Lead To Profitable Operation:

Motivation is an important tool the leads the organization in profitable operations. Motivated workers perform their duties with full responsibility. The development of self-responsibility among the workers contributes to the best utilization of available resources like materials, money, machines and others.

2. High Level Of Productivity:

Motivation contributes to developing the working efficiency of employees. When employees are actually motivated they improve their working efficiency. The development of working efficiency among workers leads to maximize production and productivity. Management can expand its business activities in large areas for organizational profitability and growth.

3. Best Remedy For Resistance To Change:

The change in the management system and organizational structures is essential to adjust an organization and its business activities according to the changing environment. In some situation workers, especially, their unions may create resistance to change. They think about their job security and stability. Motivated workers have knowledge about the outcome of changes. They even better appreciate the management viewpoints to the introduction of changes in the organization.

4. Effective Use Of Human Resources:

Manpower is the main active factor of production and is responsible for the best utilization of organizational resources. Motivation is the main instrument which creates the willingness among workers to do their work in the best possible way. In other words, motivated employees make the best utilization of their skills, knowledge capabilities etc. in the existing environment.

5. The Satisfaction Of Employees:

The satisfaction of employees is essential for organizational effectiveness. Motivation helps satisfy employees and develop morality among them. Employees with high moral become dedicated to the organization. They also perform their jobs in the best manner. Generally, employees are motivated through facilities both financial and non-financial. Financial facilities are essential to fulfil basic and other physiological needs. In a similar manner, promotion on the basis of efficiency and experience is essential to fulfilling social needs.

6. Minimizes Dispute And Strike:

Motivation is an important tool, which helps to maintain coordination and develop a feeling of harmony among workers and with the management. It minimizes misunderstanding and disputes between the management and workers. The development of transparency about the internal matters stimulates the workers to perform their work efficiently. When workers get knowledge about their responsibility and return they perform their work efficiently.

7. Basis Of Coordinates:

Motivation is the basis of coordination among all members of the organization. Motivated employees develop a better understanding of themselves. They appreciate their mutual problems and resolve differences through mutual consent. The main reason for the differences in approach among the workers is the lack of coordination. However, motivation helps to maintain coordination among the workers. The maintenance of coordination helps to develop the attitude of team spirit and group effort for common goals.

8. Stability Of The Workforce:

It is known that a motivated and stable workforce is the potential of the organization. Motivation directly or indirectly facilitates the stability of the workforce. Generally, frustrated and dissatisfied employees may think of leaving the organization and want to work for the organization with the best possible way. Therefore, the management needs to provide facilities to workers on the basis of their efficiency and experience.

9. Minimizes Supervision Cost:

Motivated employees perform their work themselves. In other words, the concept of self-responsibility is developed among them and they perform work smoothly. For such employees, only guidance and timely suggestion are sufficient. Therefore, regular and close supervision is not required for such employees. Motivation indirectly contributes to minimizing supervision cost.

10. Achievement Of Organizational Goals:

Every organization is established to achieve definite objectives. Similarly, the main responsibility of the management is to focus on organizational objectives. Motivated workers put their effort toward the attainment of organizational objectives. The best utilization of human effort contributes to the proper utilization of other resources. This is helpful to minimize the cost of output or services and maximize profitability.

Motivational Process:

Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological and physiological deficiency or need that activates behaviour that is aimed at a goal or incentives. Therefore, as process motivation can understand as the relationship among needs, drives and incentives.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

1. Needs:

Needs are created when there is a physiological and physiological imbalance in human beings. Need is the beginning stage of the motivation process. Human beings have unlimited needs as the fulfilment of unlimited need people to do a performance, this is the major concern of every manager of the organization.

2. Drivers:

Physiological and physiological drives are action-oriented. Drivers or motives are set up to make easy to fulfil needs. They are a major step of the motivational process. For example, when people have a need for food that is converted into a hunger drive. For fulfilment of huger people involved in any kind of performance. When they do any activity, it provides return and helps for getting food to overcome from hunger.

3. Incentives:

The incentive is the end part of the motivational cycle. It helps to fulfil the need and reduce drive. When people get incentive it helps to restore physical and psychological balance. For example, when people have a need for the food they involve in any kind of activity that provides a return in terms of incentives. When they get incentives in term of remuneration they purchase food.

Financial/Non-Financial Techniques Of Motivation:

1. Financial Motivation:

Financial techniques refer to monetary rewards. Incentives are nothing but the inducements provided to employees in order to motivate them. There should be a direct relationship between efforts and rewards, the financial reward should be substantial in value and must be in parity with others. Underpaying staff sends the message that your firm doesn’t value their work. Money is not a prime motivator but this should not be regarded as a signal to reward employees poorly or unfairly.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

a. Pay And Allowances:

It includes basic pay, grade pay, and dearness allowance; travelling allowance, pay increments, etc. Good pay and allowances help the organization to retain and attract capable persons. However, good pay and allowances need not motivate all the people, especially who are enjoying the security of a job in government organizations and those for whom corruption is a way of life. Some of the other issues are associated with bad attitudes, grievances, absenteeism, turnover, poor organizational citizenship, and adverse effect on employees’ mental and physical health.

b. Incentive Pay:

Incentive pay plans are meant to increase output, which can be measured quantitatively. For incentive plan targets, the employees must have confidence that they can achieve the targets.

c. Gain Sharing:

It is a reward system in which team members earn a bonus for increasing productivity or reduce wastages. To illustrate, if the wastage is reduced from 5% to less the benefits may be shared equally with the team.

d. Profit-Sharing:

It means sharing of profits with the employees by way of the distribution of bonus. The profit-sharing plan has its shortcomings – one, that it has become a regular feature in government departments irrespective of performance and two, it may have no relation with individual efforts.

e. Stock Options:

Many companies use employee stock options plans to compensate, retain, and attract employees. These plans are contracts between a company and its employees that give employees the right to buy a specific number of the company’s shares at a fixed price within a certain period of time. Employees who are granted stock options hope to profit by exercising their options at a higher price than when they were granted. In India, stock options have primarily been used as a retention tool for a more selective group of employees.

f. Retirement Benefits:

It includes the accumulated provident fund, gratuity, leaves encashment and pension. The provision of terminal benefits provides assurance to employees during the service for their future.

2. Non-financial Motivation:

Non-financial incentives do not involve money payments. These are also important in motivating employees as they bring in psychological and emotional satisfaction to them. These include so many techniques. People do work for money-but they work even more for meaning in their lives. In fact, they work to have fun.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

a. Job Security:

Nothing can motivate a worker, appointed temporarily, better than the provision of job security. Even if a temporary worker puts in greater efforts, lack of job security will always pose a threat. If such a worker is given job security, he will be more committed to the organization.

b. Challenging Work:

Workers, who are dynamic in nature, do not show a preference for routine jobs. They are always ready to accept challenging assignments, the challenge can be brought through mentoring, job redesigning job enlargement and job enrichment. Understand the capabilities of every individual in the organization and accordingly assign him work.

c. Recognition:

It is important that the employer recognizes hard work. Even a word of appreciation from him would motivate the employees to maintain the same level of performance or do even better. Employees ranked a personal ‘thank you’ as the most sought after form of recognition, followed by a handwritten note of appreciation from the boss.

d. Better Job Titles:

Job titles do matter. Employees do show a preference for certain designations. A salesman, for example, would like to be designated as a sales executive and a sweeper to be Sanitary Inspector.

e. Opportunities For Advancement:

There should never be a stagnation point for any employee during the prime time of his career. The employer must always provide opportunities for his employees to perform well and move up in the hierarchy.

f. Empowerment:

To stimulate an employee is his involvement in certain crucial decisions. For example, if the management decides to buy new machinery for the factory, the workers’ viewpoints may be secured before making the final decision. The management should avoid unilateral decisions on such matters.

g. Competition:

The management can encourage healthy competition among the employees. This would, certainly, motivate them to prove their capabilities. The management can also rank the employees according to performance. Such of those employees who have performed very well may be given merit certificates.

h. Job Rotation:

By job rotation, we mean that the employees will be exposed to different kinds of job. This certainly would break the monotony of employees. For example, in a bank, an employee may work in the Savings Bank Section for some time after which he may be posted to the cash section. Such a change not only motivates the employees to perform well but also prepares him to be versatile.

i. Lead By Example Be Passionate And Energetic:

Leaders should demonstrate the attitudes, values, actions, and mindsets that they want among their staff. Leaders are always considered as role models.

j. Encourage The Use Of Humor And Creativity:

Incorporating humour into the workplace can alleviate stress and create a more positive environment for everyone. Strategies to enhance the humour include having a daily cartoon or joke sent to all staff via e-mail, encouraging laughter, finding fun in events that did not turn out as planned or expected etc.

k. Treat Our People As Human Beings Neither Inferior Nor Superior:

Show trust and respect, motivate them for creativity, create a ‘safe-to-risk environment’, keep them informed of relevant developments inside the organization, mistakes are treated as learning tools instead of blaming them, act as an advocate for their employees and be a visible champion for them, provide resources and support required by staff to complete their jobs, promote and provide two-way feedback, address stress and burnout, and implement work/life balance initiatives.

Theories of Motivation:

1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory:

Abraham Maslow, a human psychologist developed a theory of human needs in 1943. People always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence. Human needs tend to follow a basic hierarchical pattern from the most basic needs to the highest level needs. Until the most basic needs are fulfilled, a person will not try to meet his higher-level needs.

Maslow’s theory views the personal needs in the form of a hierarchy and the needs are the progressive principle of motivation. The basic needs are:

a. Physiological Needs:

These are the basic needs for sustaining life itself, such as food, water, shelter, sleep, clothing, warmth, etc. These are the lowest order needs and until these needs are satisfied to the degree necessary to maintain life, other needs will not motivate people. In an organization, salary satisfies the physiological needs of an individual.

b. Security Or Safety Needs:

These are also the low order need and are the needs to be free of physical danger and the fear of losing a job, property, food, shelter, etc. These consists of needs for protection from physical and emotional harm. In an organization, provident fund, pension plans and health insurance satisfy the safety needs.

c. Social Needs:

Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. These needs are also known as affiliation or acceptance needs and are high order needs. They consist of the needs for affection, belongingness, friendship and social acceptance. In an organization, these needs are satisfied by informal groups, friends, clubs, etc.

d. Esteem Needs:

Once people begin to satisfy their social needs, they want to be respected both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces satisfactions like power, prestige, status and self-confidence. These needs can be for status, recognition, praise and pride. In an organization, position titles (Manager, HOD, and CEO), posh and lavish office, luxury cars satisfy such needs.

e. Self-Actualization Needs:

These are the highest order needs and consists of needs for achievement, growth, self-development, creativity, talent utilization and self-fulfilment. It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming too maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something. In organizations, higher authority may satisfy these needs by accepting challenging jobs, taking part in decision making, writing poems and biography, etc.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Strength:

1. This theory provides a useful summary of human needs, which can be used in product design, product positioning, pricing (e.g. need for power & status), and retail outlets’ designs.

2. It also helps marketers to focus their advertising appeals on specific needs shared by a large segment of their target market.

Weakness:

1. The major problem with Maslow's hierarchy-of-needs theory is that it cannot be tested empirically – there is no way to measure precisely how satisfied one level of need must be before the next higher need becomes operative.

2. The model is too simplistic:
a. The same product or service can satisfy several needs at once.
b. The model lacks empirical support for the rank-ordering of the needs.
c. The model is too culture-bound: it lacks validity across different cultures and the assumptions of the hierarchy may be restricted to Western cultures.

2. Alderfer’s ERG Theory:

To bring Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms in 1969. His rework is called an ERG theory of motivation. He categorized Maslow’s hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs:

a. Existence Needs:

These include the need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs.

b. Relatedness Needs:

These include the aspiration individuals have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors), getting public fame and recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need.

c. Growth Needs:

These include the need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.

Alderfer suggests that a person may be motivated by needs on several levels at the same time. For example, a person may go to work to make a living (existence need satisfaction) and at the same time, he/she may be motivated by good relations with his/her coworkers (relatedness need satisfaction). Alderfer also suggests that when people experience frustration on one level, they may focus on the needs at the lower level need category.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Strength:

1. Alderfer’s ERG theory is more consistent with our knowledge of the THEORY of individual differences among people. Every individual will have different importance for a different group of needs depending upon his education, family background and cultural environment. A very qualified person will value the growth needs more than the social needs or even the existence needs. On the other hand, a person who belongs to a very poor family will rate existence needs more important. In this context, the ERG theory is more relevant as compared to Maslow’s theory.

2. ERG theory takes the strong points of the earlier content theories but it is less restrictive and limiting as compared to others.

Weakness:

1. The ERG theory does not offer clear cut guidelines. This theory says that an individual can satisfy any of the three needs first. But how will we determine which of the three needs is more important to that person?

2. This theory is a new concept as compared to Maslow’s theory. Alderfer’s research has indicated some degree of support for the theories but yet it is too early to pass judgment on the overall validity of the theory.

3. McClelland Theory Of Learned Needs:

David McClelland and his associates proposed McClelland’s theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory in 1960. This theory states that human behaviour is affected by three needs - Need for Power, Achievement and Affiliation. Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish in relation to a set of standards, to struggle to achieve success. Need for power is the desire to influence other individual’s behaviour as per your wish. In other words, it is the desire to have control over others and to be influential. Need for affiliation is a need for open and sociable interpersonal relationships. In other words, it is a desire for a relationship based on co-operation and mutual understanding.

The individuals with high achievement needs are highly motivated by competing and challenging work. They look for promotional opportunities in the job. They have a strong urge for feedback on their achievement. Such individuals try to get satisfaction in performing things better. High achievement is directly related to high performance. Individuals who are better and above-average performers are highly motivated. They assume responsibility for solving the problems at work. McClelland called such individuals as gamblers as they set challenging targets for themselves and they take the deliberate risk to achieve those set targets. Such individuals look for innovative ways of performing a job. They perceive the achievement of goals as a reward and value it more than a financial reward.

The individuals who are motivated by power have a strong urge to be influential and controlling. They want their views and ideas should dominate and thus, they want to lead. Such individuals are motivated by the need for reputation and self-esteem. Individuals with greater power and authority will perform better than those possessing less power. Generally, managers with a high need for power turn out to be more efficient and successful managers. They are more determined and loyal to the organization they work for. Need for power should not always be taken negatively. It can be viewed as the need to have a positive effect on the organization and to support the organization in achieving its goals.

The individuals who are motivated by affiliation have an urge for a friendly and supportive environment. Such individuals are effective performers in a team. These people want to be liked by others. The manager’s ability to make decisions is hampered if they have a high affiliation need as they prefer to be accepted and liked by others, and this weakens their objectivity. Individuals having high affiliation needs prefer working in an environment providing greater personal interaction. Such people have a need to be on the good books of all. They generally cannot be good leaders.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Strength:

1. Provides A Clear Picture For The Organization And Managers:
a. To know which type of job is suitable for the employees and which types of people that can make the organizations more successful.

b. Identifies two types of power managers, seek personal power and seek institutional power a manager who seeks for institutional power is more successful as they can create favourable condition at work.

c. Who suitable to be promoted and become a manager.

2. Provides An Understanding To Deal With Employees:
a. How to deal with different types of employees.

b. People with a high level of achievement are suitable to become salesperson as they prefer a challenging task.

c. People with a high need for affiliation are suitable to hold a position of customer service representative as they are good in maintaining interpersonal relationship.

d. People with high need of power are suitable to hold a formal supervisory position as they have influence over other people in the organization.

3. More Empirical Evidence:
a. Believed that needs were not innate but learned at a young age and could also be developed in individuals.

b. It developed training programs for managers to increase their need for achievement.

c. This need correlates well with positive organizational behaviours and performance.

d. Offers a better mix of description and prescription enabling organizations to proactively encourage beneficial corporate behaviour and watching motivational need s with job situations.

Weakness:

1. The affiliate manager is willing to make exceptions to the company’s rule in responding to his employees’ need due to the concern of the well-being of the subordinates.

2.      Need and satisfaction of needs is a psychological thing. Sometimes even the person may not be aware of his own needs. In such a case, it will be difficult for the manager to understand the employee’s need.

3. There is no direct cause and effect relationship between need and behaviour. One particular need may cause different types of behaviour in different persons. On the other hand, a particular individual behaviour may be the result of different needs.

4. The physiological and safety needs are more important as compared to McClelland’s needs.

4. McGregor Theory X and Y:

Theory X and Y are the theories of motivation, created and developed by Douglas McGregor in 1960s. They describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation.

Theory X:

In this theory, management assumes employees are lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they always dislike work. As a result of this management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of control should be developed. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. It believes that the employees are only focused on the lower order needs (physiological and security). 

If the organizational goals are to be met, Theory X managers rely heavily on threat and forceful decisions to gain their employee’s support. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision and a punishment atmosphere.  The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. Usually, these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee’s interest in the job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. 

A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager’s job to structure the work and energize the employee.

Theory Y:

In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious, self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. According to them, work is as natural as play. They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Given the proper conditions, Theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility, exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. 

A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. It is believed that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that are required for employee’s development. It's employee development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. 

This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This environment would include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have some suggestions in decisions that influence them.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Strength:

1. Theory ‘X’ and theory ‘Y’ are a good guide to management, to not only developing motivational techniques; but also attuning entire managerial systems around these assumptions about human behaviour.

2. McGregor’s assumptions about human behaviour are rather realistic; as in practice we usually find people corresponding to Theory ‘X’ or Theory ‘Y’ ideologies. This is the common observation of many of us.

Weakness:

1. It tends to over-generalise and oversimplifies people as being one way or the other. People cannot be put on two extremes. No enterprising man belongs either to Theory X or Theory Y.

2. McGregor’s theory squeezes managerial styles and philosophies into two extremes of conduct which is devoid of reality.

3. McGregor suggests that the job itself is the key to motivation. But all people do not see motivation in the job. The management has to motivate people to work.

4. People who follow Theory Y still find that they have to behave in a very directive and controlling manner.

Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

Contemporary Issues of Motivation In Nepalese Organization:

Keeping employees motivated is essential for a happy, productive workplace. Motivated employees deliver a better product and contribute actively to the company, bringing fresh ideas and solutions to problems that crop up. However, it can be challenging to keep workers driven. Several factors have a negative impact on motivation, including unclear expectations, a lack of personal investment and a lack of rewards and pay.
Motivation, Concept of motivation, Need of motivation, Motivational Process, Financial and non financial motivation, Theories of motivation, Maslow Need hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, McGregor theory X and Y , Contemporary issues of motivation in Nepalese organization and Application of case,

1. Unclear Expectations:

When employees don't fully understand a task they've been given, it can be difficult for them to stay motivated. University of Southern California professor Richard Clark explains that if an employee doubts his/her ability to complete a task, his/her enthusiasm and commitment to the company decrease. Discuss expectations with the employee. For bigger projects, create a rubric or guide that outlines metrics for a successful project. Be clear and specific, offering examples or concrete goals for each task.

2. Lack Of Adequate Materials:

Some employees don't have the skills or tools they need to perform the given task. This can lead employees to feel insecure about their work and unsure about how to meet expectations. A lack of tools also can make employees feel as though their company is not invested in their success.

3. Lack Of Ownership:

It is important for workers to believe they have some stake in the company where they work. Employees who feel as though they are just following orders are less invested in the final product because it does not reflect their ideas and creativity. Additionally, employees who must ask their managers for permission to address even small problems work less efficiently and are less likely to solve problems on their own.

4. Lack Of Compensation:

Workers who believe they are inadequately compensated for their work is less likely to get fired up about their job. They feel undervalued, which can make them resentful and may affect their willingness to work hard.

5. Low Self-Confidence:

Confidence enhances an employee’s motivation; he/she believes that he/she can perform the tasks necessary to achieve his/her goals. Confidence contributes to his/her willingness to persevere and complete tasks. If the employee lacks confidence, he/she feels unworthy and is unable to make decisions or remain unmotivated until an objective is accomplished. Lacking self-confidence, the employee is unable to form good work relationships or assert himself/herself, both of which are important if the employee is to be successful in the workplace. In addition, the employee will procrastinate or apply limited effort to ensure that these issues, and not himself/herself, are the reasons the employee fails.

6. Low Expectations For Success:

Positive expectations of success enhance an employee’s motivation. If an employer has high expectations for an employee, he/she likely will assign engaging work tasks to the employee. In turn, the employee’s self-esteem increases as does his confidence and on-the-job performance. Increased self-confidence contributes to the employee’s motivation and willingness to accept future challenging assignments. In contrast, low expectations ensure the employee will remain unmotivated and will not perform as well as the employer expects. In addition, an employer who has low expectations in regards to an employee is less likely to provide the tools and equipment necessary for the employee to accomplish a work task, further diminishing the employee's motivation.

7. Lack Of Interest In Subject Matter:

An employee exhibits motivation as an interest or a driving force that persuades him/her to take action. An interested employee will be curious about a task and attempt to perform it well. Lack of interest can lead to decreased motivation and the failure to accomplish a goal. If an employee is not interested in particular tasks, he/she will not fully engage in his/her work. Instead, he/she will focus his/her attention elsewhere, not fully participate in the activity at hand and perform poorly.

8. Achievement Anxiety:

Employees who experience achievement anxiety are sensitive to punishment, including criticism or the loss of something they value. As a result, achievement anxiety can inhibit employee behaviour. Anxious employees may be less interested in tasks and less motivated to achieve. For example, the employee may begin an activity but stop before he/she completes the task if he/she becomes anxious about potential negative feedback.

9. Fear Of Failure:

If an employee fears failure, he/she fears a lack of success and will avoid work that he/she lacks the confidence to complete. The employee perceives a lack of success as a failure, which he/she believes is confirmation that he/she is flawed in some way. The more the employee fears failure, the less motivated he/she will be to perform work or attempt to accomplish goals because it is easier to avoid tasks than experiencing shame due to his/her failure to complete a task.

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